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JimLucas

The 6-sided, "pinhole" Æolas

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If this thread is drifting in the direction of "pinhole" or .&, Wheatstones, I won't resist the current.

I'll divert it into this new channel, since it looks to be a Topic that may continue for a while, and it would be nice to have its Topic say what it's about.

Here's a recap of stuff from the "Wheatstone No. 22002" Topic:

 

...my 21445 is a pinhole type (same fret pattern as the early sixsided "Aeola" instruments) 56 key treble with riveted reeds in shallow reed frames.

 

Kenneth Chidley said that his father, Edward Junior, introduced the Aeola in its usual form about 1902, but it would be nice to confirm this, and see if there was anything unusual happening before this.

 

I have in my shop Wheatstone 6-sided pinhole concertina #22961. It is playing, more or less, and is in pretty much original, unrestored condition (including brilliantly made reeds in tune in original pitch) except for the ends which have had cracks repaired and some refinishing by a previous owner. The reeds are not the riveted type.

 

From your replies, its already looking like rivetted reeds changed to screwed reeds between 21445 and 22961, so it would be useful to know which type are in your 220002, Red. You'd then be either the proud owner of one of the last rivetted, or one of the earliest screwed reeds. You can also compare your instrument with the photo that Pete kindly posted, and see if you can see any differences. Pete's instrument has the usual fretwork pattern, but Goran mentions 'pinhole' which is a much smaller, less open pattern.

 

Here's a photo of a 6-sided Æola with "pinhole" fretwork,...

[i will re-post this item, since it includes a photo]

 

I mentioned above #22961. This is so numbered on the left-side oval paper label; internally it is numbered "39' throughout. BTW I don't have the right-side paper maker's label for this one; it may have been kept as a souvenir by a previous owner who was an amateur repairman. I should photocopy a Wheatstone label and put it in there.

 

I also have some bits and pieces of two other pinhole instruments, with internal stamps "38" and "68," respectively. I think these are "batch" or production numbers and suspect that redundant internal numbers will be found on instruments from this period, that originally were marked with different serial numbers. My two fragmentary instruments, like #22961, had screwed reeds. All three were 56 key extended trebles (unlike the concertina in Jim's photo). However, like his, all are six-sided and have fretwork similar to the one in his photo.

 

There is another very good photo of one of these in the ad for Joel Cowan in C&S #30 (p. 5, 1993). The number 21444 is clearly visible on the label, but the label's appearance is very different from that of #22961. The latter label (on mine) is clearly original, with the Wheatstone name and address also printed there in very fine type. Joel's ad states "'Pinhole' Aeolas were typically 56-key extended trebles, and were equipped with a four-fold leather bellows." However, #22961 has a five fold bellows that looks original. In the photo of "#21444," the word "Aeola" is stamped in the wood. #22961 does not seem ever to have had the stamp, but if very shallow, this may have been obscured in the light refinishing done by a previous owner. The bits and pieces of fretwork belonging to my two fragmentary instruments are thousands of miles away, in my shop, but I think I remember that at least one did have this "Aeola" stamp.

 

Wes, I have never been sure that Wheatstone's riveted reeds did not overlap chronologically with the "normal" type (perhaps in instruments made at the same time, but of different models or quality grades). Do you have reliable evidence that the whole shop switched from the riveted reeds to the screwed reeds at some (possibly unknown) particular date (leaving aside for the moment the two types of riveted reeds, and the earlier screwed reeds)?

 

I have always been interested in these "pinhole" instruments and will enjoy hearing from others who know more about them.

 

As noted above, my next post in this Topic will be a repeat of the one from the "Wheatstone No. 22002" Topic, which includes a photo of the end of a pinhole Æola, I'm including with this post a picture of the stamped-in "Æola" on the end of its bellows. This is found on both ends of the bellows, and is stamped in the leather, where Paul says #21444 has it stamped in the wood.

 

There has also been mention of pinhole Æolas in two prior threads under General Concertina Discussion, "Rosewood Vs. Ebony" and "Quality of Fretwork & Sound Quality".

post-9-1073705031.jpg

Edited by JimLucas

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Repost of item first posted in "Wheatstone No. 22002" Topic:

 

Here's a photo of a 6-sided Æola with "pinhole" fretwork, also known as "dot-comma" fretwork. I think you can see why.

 

Some not-too-useful historical information: This instrument has screw plates on the reeds, not rivets. It has no evidence of a serial number. Internally it is clearly stamped in several places with the "batch" number 59, but the maker's label on the one end is paper under an open circle in the fretwork, and on the other end there's only a relatively new (not yellowed) blank piece of white paper.

post-9-1073705423.jpg

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And here's a photo of the label on that same instrument (with the internal no. 59).

post-9-1073705688.jpg

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Jim,

 

Thanks for organizing the new topic. BTW, I have edited my post in the previous topic to correct the citation for the C&S photo. It was in issue #30, not #29 (I was misled by the pages of #30 which are incorrectly labeled "issue number twenty-nine").

 

My complete pinhole concertina has the original bellows frames (marked with the same batch number), and I believe the bellows are also original or possibly (but doubtfully) a very early Wheatstone factory replacement. There is no sign of the Aeola stamp anywhere on the bellows folds or on the leather covering of the bellows frames.

 

All three instruments I have examined closely have reedpans parallel to the soundboards ("padboards" in the sense Dave Elliott defines the term). So the chambers for the bass reeds are no deeper than for the treble reeds. Goran has mentioned this feature before, and I know at least one excellent english concertinist (who is also a VERY advanced instrument craftsman, of another type of instrument) who prefers the Wheatstone concertinas that have this reedpan geometry. I think his is a rosewood model however.

 

This raises a question that interests me greatly, but that I can't answer. How do the most accomplished english concertinists regard the pinhole instruments? What are their most appropriate musical uses? I can tell you I highly admire the reeds and the overall tone (judging from mine, which did not have baffles installed when I obtained it and which has pristine, untouched factory reedwork). The minimal opening of the fretwork (perhaps in combination with the reedpan geometry, woods used, scale-length of reeds, etc.) seems to knock down the higher partials of the treble reeds and reduce the harshness (and out-of-tune "combination tones" ) that frequently occur when playing harmony on an english concertina, especially in the upper register. The tone quality (timbre) is very strong yet remarkably "round" and "warm." It is almost the ideal of tone preferred by some anglo players for Irish music (though in a session setting where there is so much random pitch information and so much "absorbance" of sound, perhaps it would seem too boxed-in and not "cut through" sufficiently for some, or just not project enough volume up to the ears of the player). I suspect some singers might also find this tone quality appealing.

 

I don't have a later, octagonal Aeola for comparison at present but my memory is that the scale length (map of reed lengths as a function of pitch) for the pinhole instruments is "long, but not as long as later Aeolas." I will get back to this topic after measuring a few, but my sense is that the reedtongues are a little "broader" (smaller length/width ratio) than for later Aeolas. This characteristic is often presumed to correlate with a mellower tone. However, I find the reeds of this pinhole instrument, outside the instrument, quite bright and loud (though perhaps not as much so as the later Aeolas). I may need to be corrected on these points but thought the issue was worth raising. English players, Aeola owners, help me and/or correct me here, because I would like to learn more on this point.

 

Wes, was the pinhole design an attempt to refine (reduce the harshness of) the upper-range tone of the extended treble instrument? Was the rounder tone an indirect response to the change to equal temperament, which makes harmonies harsher? Or did these concertinas have some more particular musical purpose for which they were advertised? And, english-concertinists, what do you think of these and do any of you like them (or dislike them) and why? If these are disliked relative to the finest later Wheatstones, is this because of their unique tone or because of other features (e. g., sheer volume, action, the extra high notes that are rarely used, a preference for the octagon...)?

 

Paul

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Paul:"This raises a question that interests me greatly, but that I can't answer. How do the most accomplished english concertinists regard the pinhole instruments?"

 

Goran:I share your interest Paul but I don't answer to the "accomplished" title...:-)

Anyway...I have three instruments that may contribute to my opinon and I've met two more (similar pinhole ones) of the same kind.

1) The said 21445 ...I have to correct my latest post in the other thread because I got so confused over the 21444 having the "Aeola" stamp and not 21445 that I examined it closer than I have ever done before...and Yes, it does have the stamp but hardly visible. I got it from Frank Butler and he actually said this was "the first Aeola model" but I never saw the stamp at that time...

 

2) A precise twin of the above but which lacked its original label so the number is unknown and the ends were completely damaged and now gone. This one I made new ends for, from masonite and with just simple 'f-holes' of the violin type.

 

3) Another un-numbered 'twin' apart from the ends which have the Wheatstone standard simple fairly open circular SSS fretpattern with a covered central area around the keyboard.

 

All parts of these three instruments are interchangeable. Reeds of same kind. Reed pans not tapered. Reed chambers running to the centre except for the highest 10 notes each side. (56keys). 1 and 2 fourfolded bellows. 3 with new 6sided bellows.

This makes it possible to identify the tonal character related to the pinhole ends and many years ago I did some simple tonespectrometric registrations with these and some other instruments which confirmed the subjective experience (which I like to describe same way as you Paul...) that the 'rounder', 'mellower', 'warmer' tone related to the pinhole ends corresponded with reduction of higher overtones in the spectrum. No 2) above showed rather similar reduction too however compared to 3) but had subjectively a more 'open' and louder sound.

 

Paul:"I don't have a later, octagonal Aeola for comparison at present but my memory is that the scale length (map of reed lengths as a function of pitch) for the pinhole instruments is "long, but not as long as later Aeolas."

 

Goran: Without measuring I would say the same. The riveted reeds also being I think slightly broader in the lower octave(s) but leaner in the highest. Have to check it later..

 

Paul: "I will get back to this topic after measuring a few, but my sense is that the reedtongues are a little "broader" (smaller length/width ratio) than for later Aeolas. This characteristic is often presumed to correlate with a mellower tone. However, I find the reeds of this pinhole instrument, outside the instrument, quite bright and loud (though perhaps not as much so as the later Aeolas)."

 

Goran:I don't know what the broader feature may do to the tone (if specific...)

but the shallower reed frame should reduce the loudness a bit and I would definitely say that these riveted reed instruments I have come across are NOT loud but rather a bit softer than most others...even without using the pinhole ends.

Ends of No2) and 3) above are 'mellow' but louder than 1) ( tried on all three)

 

The longer (no partitions) reed chambers in my impression contribute to mellower tone too (likely also by reduction of high overtones but also reduce 'response' or 'onset' while shorter chambers and shallower (not tapered) ones facilitate response. This effect was achieved by inserting cork partitions in the chambers which seems to have become popular on old ones when new instruments started being regularly provided with these partitions which wrongly have been said being used for 'tuning' the chambers.

 

Paul:.. was the pinhole design an attempt to refine (reduce the harshness of) the upper-range tone of the extended treble instrument? Was the rounder tone an indirect response to the change to equal temperament, which makes harmonies harsher? Or did these concertinas have some more particular musical purpose for which they were advertised?

 

Goran:The effect of the ends is obvious. The tone becomes mellower due to high frequency reduction AND some general mute effect too....the pinhole ends reduce loudness too. So there seemingly is a combined effect from damping and change of spectrum balance.

The character of the reeds compared to ordinary clamped ones in deeper frames ought to be investigated.

These instruments are not related to the change of temperament...but of course you expect any instrument to sound more 'harmonious' in the keys with few signatures if mean tone temperament is used.

 

Paul:"And, english-concertinists, what do you think of these and do any of you like them (or dislike them) and why? If these are disliked relative to the finest later Wheatstones, is this because of their unique tone or because of other features (e. g., sheer volume, action, the extra high notes that are rarely used, a preference for the octagon...)?"

 

Goran:I and actually many of my friends here find these models tonally superior to most other (at least later) ones but that is clearly related to the general dislike of the 'usual' raw concertina tone..:-) The tight pinhole ends no doubt reduces the 'dynamics' of the instrument which can be a disadvantage for some music. This is obvious when comparing those 3 above and ought to be related to the muting (=general damping) effect.

My impression from these in all 5 instruments with riveted reeds is that the reed quality(=precision) itself is *very* high = "top of the line". If set right I don't regard the reed onset/response as slow at all despite it ought to be so, due to the long chambers and shallow frames AND (if I am right) also not very hard steel. (They are fairly easy to file compared with the hardest examples)

 

I am curious to hear other testimonies.....

 

Goran Rahm

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I have edited my post in the previous topic to correct the citation for the C&S photo. It was in issue #30, not #29...

And I have now done the same where I quote you in my "recap".

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I've replied on the previous thread that I have no knowledge of when the reed types changed, if the changeover overlapped, or if it was model related. To repeat also from that thread, no Wheatstone records exist from late 1891 to mid 1910 (instruments approx 21354 - 24999).

 

The Wayne collection has these notes:

 

C101 Standard “By Her Majesty’s...” label on the earliest known Wheatstone “Aeola” No 22669, c 1898.

 

C102 This instrument has two oval paper labels: On the left—hand end: “Wheatstone & Co, Patentees and —23090— Manufacturers, 20 Conduit St. London W”, and on the right: “C. Wheatstone & Co. Inventors, Patentees & Manufacturers, 15 West St Charing X Road, London WC”. The instrument, a Wheatstone Aeola No 23090, c.1901, is a rare “comma” fretwork model, the earliest -form of the octagonal Aeola and the first appearance of the “West S.” label, and has a fascinating mix of label styles and addresses, showing the period of transition from Conduit St to West St. premises.

 

Neil also noted (Wheatstone Story):

 

Upon the introduction of their 'Aola'in 1898, Wheatstones devised a new 'long

scale' format of reed bed, of slimmer, narrower form and with a

proportionately longer reed tongue, which was considered to offer improved

voicing, tone and attack.

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Wes,

 

Thanks for the clarification. I was exploring your suggestion (in the original topic) that riveted reeds might have changed to screwed reeds between #21445 and #22961. From your answer above, and the limited evidence collected in these two topics, that seems a possibility but maybe only a possibility.

 

Thank you also for the additional quotes. I don't think I have ever seen an octagonal pinhole concertina.

 

It's very interesting to have all this information together "on the desk!"

 

 

 

Goran,

 

If I undstand you correctly, your three pinhole instruments all have riveted reeds and the three I have had a chance to study all had screwed reeds... a strange coincidence? I have seen the riveted reeds in rosewood, metal-button Wheatstone english concertinas from this period and I do like them. I think they have a very beautiful quality of tone. I don't have one to re-examine now, but I think the fitting of tongue to frame was not as precise as in the screwed-note reeded pinhole concertinas, and that the tongues were set (and needed to be set) a little high to work at their best. Both these features might be expected to very slightly slow the "attack" of the reed (or to necessitate a higher bellows pressure to achieve fast attack). But the riveted-reed instruments I have seen had all been repitched by other dealers or repairmen, and may not fairly represent the condition, response, and tone of these reeds when they left Wheatstone's shop. I remember doing a lot of re-adjusting of these to get them working better. And, of course, I'm not a serious player of the english concertina so I always defer to those who can operate the instruments better when considering which characteristics of reeds (etc. ) are more desirable.

 

My speculation about temperament could be expanded as follows: Certain harmonies (especially major thirds and minor sixths, very common in the 19th century concertina literature) can sound much harsher in equal temperament than in the earlier meantone - (and possibly well-) temperaments. This is because of the "beating" effect caused by a dissonance between the higher harmonics of the two or more notes making up the harmony. In english concertinas tuned in equal temperament, if you play major third intervals in the mid- to upper register of the instrument you can generate some extremely ugly effects, including clearly audible, out-of-tune, "combination tones." These "combination tones" are audible at the frequencies corresponding to the SUM and (more importantly) the DIFFERENCE between the frequencies of two close, but not identical harmonics. I was wondering (again this is a question, not a conclusion) if the "pinhole" fretwork with its attenuation of high harmonics (and thus, of the beating and the combination tones) might be a response to complaints that harmonies on the concertina had become harsh since the switch from meantone.

 

Alternatively, the development and utilization of the "extended treble" concept may have led to a demand for a sweeter tone on those very high notes (even when playing unharmonized melodies). This was my other speculation/question.

 

I think these two questions can best be answered by the serious players of this instrument, those who have historical documents available, and perhaps the makers -- or all three working together. I'm just a tuner and anglo player!

 

Paul

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Wes:"Neil also noted (Wheatstone Story):"

 

(Upon the introduction of their 'Aola'in 1898, Wheatstones devised a new 'long

scale' format of reed bed, of slimmer, narrower form and with a

proportionately longer reed tongue, which was considered to offer improved

voicing, tone and attack. )

 

Goran:We seem to face some confusion here that will hunt us for ever:

The said "Aeola" in the quotation refers to the octagonal instrument which commonly is called "the Aeola" while we have these sixsided (seemingly all with"pinhole ends") from an earlier period stamped "Aeola" on their ends.

 

The special features connected with Aeolas of either kind are not combined, nor are they specific. All of them per se also seem to occur with other instruments NOT referred to as Aeolas of any kind...!! (the reed type(s), the end types, the shapes)

What to do?!?

 

Goran Rahm

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Paul:Goran,If I undstand you correctly, your three pinhole instruments all have riveted reeds

 

Goran: Maybe I was unclear:

1) has original pinhole ends stamped Aeola

2) had originally pinhole ends (damaged) I don't know if stamped Aeola or not...

now replaced by my own make masonite ends with "f-holes"

3) has original circular SSS fretpattern wooden ends, black

All three have same kind riveted reeds

I've examined two more of the 1) type, both with riveted reeds

 

Paul:" I have seen the riveted reeds in rosewood, metal-button Wheatstone english concertinas from this period and I do like them. I think they have a very beautiful quality of tone. I don't have one to re-examine now, but I think the fitting of tongue to frame was not as precise as in the screwed-note reeded pinhole concertinas, and that the tongues were set (and needed to be set) a little high to work at their best. "

 

Goran:Like I said, after 'trimming' they work very well...despite you do expect riveted reeds not to be possible to fit with the same exactness as screwed ones (while maybe more secure when once fitted). Since the reeds in these instruments still seem so good I see two possibilities: 1) they are *selected* for 'top of the line' - "professional" as they sometimes have been called- models or 2) they have been processed and fitted by the most skilled workers ...or both...

 

Paul:"Both these features might be expected to very slightly slow the "attack" of the reed (or to necessitate a higher bellows pressure to achieve fast attack).

 

Goran:The impression by myself (and associates) is that these (riveted) reeds are 'not quite as responsive' (slower "attack" as you say) as most later Aeola reeds.

My interpretation is that it may be related to the found

1) shallower reed frames (obvious)

2) 'softer' metal used (??)

3) more profiled shape (?? ...have not tried to examine...)

There are these factors involved:

- if the metal is 'harder'=stiffer, with larger elasticitymodule, you have to increase the length or decrease the thickness for the same frequency but the 'density'(specific weight) is involved too and may be varied also

- so you need to know the specifications of the actual reed metal to 'understand' the situation and that we don't....

 

Paul:"My speculation about temperament could be expanded as follows....... I was wondering (again this is a question, not a conclusion) if the "pinhole" fretwork with its attenuation of high harmonics (and thus, of the beating and the combination tones) might be a response to complaints that harmonies on the concertina had become harsh since the switch from meantone."

 

Goran:Hm..I see...Well why not? At least I find it obvious that it was a directed attempt to 'mellow the tone' and seemingly the fretwork AND those specific reeds act in the same direction. The speculation is tempting in my view as we also find that the earlier 'art music' connection with the 'English' concertina established from its introduction went on just about up to 1880s and it is possible like you say that some of the tonal attraction was looked upon as lost.

Around turn of the century the 'concertina band movement' and 'folk music' segment focused on other demands with more powerful rather than 'sweet' instruments too...

 

Paul:"Alternatively, the development and utilization of the "extended treble" concept may have led to a demand for a sweeter tone on those very high notes (even when playing unharmonized melodies). This was my other speculation/question."

 

Goran:I rather don't think so since those high notes actually are 'sweet' anyway!!

(but you may not believe so since they sound so intensive) You know, you don't actually hear as many high overtones in the high octaves since they come outside the audible region and their amplitude is very small. The high frequency reduction effect due to the pinhole end type consequently is more influencial for the lower notes (producing up to 20 overtones, most of them irregular...) than the high ones!!!

But of course those high notes will be a bit damped/muted too by the ends which is an effect I would say is detectable also, so what you say still may be quite right....

 

Paul:"I think these two questions can best be answered by the serious players of this instrument, those who have historical documents available, and perhaps the makers -- or all three working together. I'm just a tuner and anglo player!"

 

Goran: One thing seems clear to me....The matter of "nice tone" with concertinas somehow has not been very prominent since long. I bet it was more so 'in the early days' ....but later on demands for "brightness" and "loudness" seem to have dominated. Among English players I believe favoured in band playing and among Anglo players to be heard outdoors and for dancing and for Duet playing one could more rely on polyphony/harmonies than 'tone' anyway....

 

Goran Rahm

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I have only just picked up on this thread, but here is my contribution, we have a pin hole six sided Aeola, with the 'Aeola' embossed into the ebony end plates. The reeds are screw and clamp type and its serial is 22428, it's label is 'West Street & Charing X.

 

Any one wanting further information please let me know.

 

Due to its semi destroyed condition I have had to replace the bellows, but noticed no engraving on the bellows frame leathers before this was done.

 

Dave E

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Dave, one thing we might do to know a bit more descriptively (probably not acoustically since we can not compare....) is to measure the reeds.

We can't (or don't wish to...) do them all but take all As and Cs for instance and I (and maybe someone else) with riveted reed similar 'Aeolas' do thesame.

 

Use a micrometer and measure reed width. A slide-calliper is the best we can do for length I guess. I only have mm ones of both..is that allright with you too?

We wait with the thickness which is a bit trickier.

An interesting issue is the 'hardness' (Rockwell C for instance)...I have not checked details but I fear it would be difficult to achieve correct conditions for measurement on reeds directly at all. Possibly on with the largest ones...?

Goran Rahm

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In researching an instrument I've just been asked to prepare for sale I've come across this thread.

The instrument in question is a "pinhole" Aeola serial number 24695, so it come very late in the black hole in the Wheatstone ledgers.

 

The instrument itself is in wonderful condition externally. The owner tells me it belonged to his father who last played it in the 1940s. From the look of it it wasn't played very much prior to that.

 

It has a couple of features which I hope will interest the historians here. It is 8 sided, and as far as I can tell all the previously described pinhole Aeolas have 6 sides. Second it has screwed reeds (not unusual) but most of the reed shoes are aluminium which I think is not expected for this age of concertina.

 

Here are a couple of photos.

post-510-1191087088_thumb.jpgpost-510-1191087341_thumb.jpg

Edited by Theo

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Very interesting, Theo. What kind of wood are the ends made of?

 

Greg

They are laminated, and the top layer appears to be ebony, and has the characteristic fine network of cracks that can develop in ebony.

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Very interesting, Theo. What kind of wood are the ends made of?

 

Greg

They are laminated, and the top layer appears to be ebony, and has the characteristic fine network of cracks that can develop in ebony.

 

 

The one I restored for my daughter had solid ebony ends, hence to need to make a complete new pair of action box covers

 

Dave

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The one I restored for my daughter had solid ebony ends, hence to need to make a complete new pair of action box covers

 

Dave

 

I have a 6-sided one in the workshop too. Its suffered a similar fate, but in addition its had various low quality repairs attempted. It will also need two new end panels.

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The one I restored for my daughter had solid ebony ends, hence to need to make a complete new pair of action box covers

 

Dave

 

I have a 6-sided one in the workshop too. Its suffered a similar fate, but in addition its had various low quality repairs attempted. It will also need two new end panels.

 

 

The one I did was a 56k extended up, I probably still have the drawings for the fretting somewhere, the only thing I did not get was the pressed impression of 'Aeola'

 

The fretting fooled Niel Wayne when my then 16yr old turned up with it to the Royal at Dungworth S.Y.

 

Dave

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