# Data Science

Data Science is a multidisciplinary field of study that utilizes data collection, data analysis, data visualization to extract insight from data. It incorporates skills from a long list of computer science, statistical, mathematical, and visual design disciplines.

## Application

Since the beginning of the 21st century, data science has been used in generally every field of industry to extract insight from data for finding new efficiencies in business decision-making and product development. These applications are largely related to fields of study rooted in data science, including:

- Data Visualization
- Data Engineering
- Machine Learning & Deep Learning
- Artificial Intelligence
- Cloud and Distributed Computing
- Business Intelligence and Strategy

## Languages and Tools

- Python (Matplotlib, Pandas, Scikit-learn, TensorFlow, NLTK)
- R (ggplot2)
- Excel
- Tableau
- SQL
- Jupyter Notebook
- MATLAB

## History

Many statisticians have argued that data science is not a new field, but rather another name for statistics. Considering this perspective, the history of data science would date as far back as 5th century B.C., demonstrated by the Athenians who estimated the height of ladders needed to scale the walls of Platea by counting the bricks of the wall vertically in several areas, then multiplying the most frequent count by the height of a brick.

In 1662, John Graunt produced *Natural and Political Observations Made Upon the Bills of Mortality* in which he estimated the population of London by using annual funeral records, familial death rates, and average family size.

Without the correlation to statistics involved, many consider John Tukey to be the inventor of data science where in March 1962 he published *The Future of Data Analysis* where he described a field he called “data analysis,” which resembles modern data science. With advents in data processing and storage, applications of data science have accelerated in both complexity and popularity.