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I am working on a 48 button Lachenal that Dowright has dated c. 1860. It has brass reeds (which don't look like they've been bothered very much), glass buttons and a 5 fold bellows. Overall it is in very good shape. I am making new thumb straps, doing some bellows repairs, and replacing pads, springs, valves and bushings. All of the internal and external woodwork and action components are in excellent condition. If it was for my own use I probably wouldn't touch most of the pads, springs and valves, but it will be gifted to a friend who isn't the type to poke around inside of it, so this work is prophylactic. I don't play the English, but some friends who do tried it out and it sounded pleasantly in tune with itself. My initial thought was that I could handle tuning the 2 or 3 "bum" notes that were apparent. Today, just for fun, I printed out a button layout diagram and tried each button against my little tuner, recognizing that this exercise will be more useful with an accurate tuning app, and once the spring, pad, valve and bellows work is done. However, the results have me reconsidering a DIY tuning job, and also wondering what I'm starting with. Here are the initial findings (the tuner is set for equal temperament and A 440): It's sharp across the board - this wasn't too big a surprise- I've read about the evolution of standard tuning. With some "black key" exceptions, notes range from about 15 to 30 cents sharp. push & pull notes on each button are in tune with each other the tuning of a particular note is consistent across the key board e.g. all the Fs are 30 cents sharp, all the As are 18 cents sharp G#s, F#s, C#s all read as in tune for A440- Abs show as 35 cent sharp G#s, D#s are all 10 cents flat, and Ebs show as 30 cent sharp D#s. Having read, but not fully comprehended, some of the recent threads on temperaments I'm wondering if the patterns noted above might give some clues to how this was originally tuned? It will be used by a professional singer for self accompaniment, so maybe something other than EQ at A 440 would be viable? I welcome your thoughts, just remember that I am a by- ear-playing Anglo-phile with no musical theory. Layman's terms appreciated!